传奇人物

www.365sb.comU.S.A.最特异的二人总理竟比希特勒更凶横

19 6月 , 2020  

一、George Washington

第4集 – 美洲原住民城市居民及其文化

Race is a shapeshifting adversary: what seems self-evident takes
training to see, and twists under political pressure

George·Washington:用印第安人的人皮能够营造出优秀休闲鞋

VOICE ONE:

We think we know what race is. When the United States Census Bureau says
that the country will be majority non-white by 2044, that seems like a
simple enough statement. But race has always been a weaselly thing.

In 1779, George Washington instructed Major General John Sullivan
toattack Iroquois people. Washington stated, “lay waste all the
settlementsaround…that the country may not be merely overrun, but
destroyed”. Inthe course of the carnage and annihilation of Indian
people, Washington alsoinstructed his general not “listen to any
overture of peace before thetotal ruin of their settlements is
effected”. (Stannard, David E. AMERICANHOLOCAUST. New York: Oxford
University Press, 1992. pp. 118-121.)

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

www.365sb.com,Today my students, including Black and Latino students, regularly ask me
why Asians (supposedly) ‘assimilate’ with whites more quickly than
Blacks and Latinos. Strangely, in the 1920s, the US Supreme Court denied
Asians citizenship on the basis that they could never assimilate;
fast-forward to today, and Asian immigrants are held up as exemplars of
assimilation. The fact that race is unyielding enough to shut out
someone from the national community, yet malleable enough for my
students to believe that it explains a group’s apparent assimilation,
hints at what a shapeshifting adversary race is. Race is incredibly
tenacious and unforgiving, a source of grave inequality and injustice.
Yet over time, racial categories evolve and shift. 

In 1783, Washington‘s anti-Indian sentiments were apparent in
hiscomparisons of Indians with wolves: “Both being beast of prey, tho‘
theydiffer in shape”, he said. George Washington‘s policies of
exterminationwere realized in his troops behaviors following a defeat.
Troops would skin thebodies of Iroquois “from the hips downward to make
boot tops orleggings”. Indians who survived the attacks later re-named
the nation‘sfirst president as “Town Destroyer”. Approximately 28 of 30
Senecatowns had been destroyed within a five year period.

VOICE TWO:

To really grasp race, we must accept a double paradox. The first one is
a truism of antiracist educators: we can see race, but it’s not real.
The second is stranger: race has real consequences, but we can’t see it
with the naked eye. Race is a power relationship; racial categories are
not about interesting cultural or physical differences, but about
putting other people into groups in order to dominate, exploit and
attack them. Fundamentally, race makes power visible by assigning it to
physical bodies. The evidence of race right before our eyes is not a
visual trace of a physical reality, but a by-product of social
perceptions, in which we are trained to see certain features as salient
or significant. Race does not exist as a matter of biological fact, but
only as a consequence of a process of racialisation.

1779年,George华盛顿提示JohnSullivan大校攻打Iroquois人民时说:借使将“垃圾”放到全部定居点周围,…..那么任何国家将不仅是洪水横流,而是被损毁了。在屠杀消亡印第安人经过中,Washington还提醒他的将军说:在富有印第安人居留地被有效摧毁前并不是听取任何和平的建议”

And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States. Today, we tell
about early Native Americans.

Occasionally there are historical moments when the creation of race and
its political meaning get spelled out explicitly. The US Constitution
divided people into white, Black or Indian, which were meant to stand in
for power categories: those eligible for citizenship, those subjected to
brutal enslavement, and those targeted for genocide. In the first
census, each resident counted as one person, each slave as three-fifths
a person, and each Indian was not counted at all.

在1783年,Washington在把印第安人和狼的相互作用相比较中,他这种反印第安人心思脱漏无疑:“两个都以掠食的野兽,仅仅在形象上分歧”,他说。Washington的根除政策在他的武装力量又二次战胜了印第安人事后能够实践。军大家从Iroquois人的遗体上剥皮,“从屁股往下剥皮,那样能够创设出高的或能够并腿而长的登山鞋来。”在这里场袭击帝辛存的印第安人将美利哥第生龙活虎总统改名叫“小城摧毁者”。大致三二十二个Senca人的城镇中有三十多个在一个5年时间内被摧毁。

VOICE ONE:

But racialisation is often more insidious. It means that we see things
that don’t exist, and fail to recognise things that do. The most
powerful racial category is often invisible: whiteness. The benefit of
being in power is that whites can imagine that they are the norm and
that only other people have race. An early US census instructed people
to leave the race section blank if they were white, and indicate only if
someone were something else (‘B’ for Black, ‘M’ for Mulatto). Whiteness
was literally unmarked.

二、托马斯 杰弗逊Thomas·杰弗逊(就是那位声称“天赋人权”——人人生而同等的民主首脑卡塔尔(قطر‎:美利坚联邦合众国必得杜绝印第安人

Scientists believe that the native peoples of America came here
thousands of years ago during the last ice age. These people settled the
land from the cold northern areas to the extreme end of South America.

A brief aside on the politics of typography, in case you’re wondering:
throughout this article I leave ‘white’ as is, but I capitalise ‘Black’,
as well as ‘Indian’ and ‘Irish’. Why? Well, as the writer and activist
W E B DuBois said in the early 20th century, during the decades-long
campaign to capitalise ‘Negro’: ‘I believe that 8 million Americans are
entitled to a capital letter.’ I could argue that I don’t capitalise
white because ‘white’ rarely rises to the level of a cultural
identification – but the real reason I don’t is because race is never
fair, so it’s fitting for inequality be written into the words we use
for races.

In 1807, Thomas Jefferson instructed his War Department that, shouldany
Indians resist against America stealing Indian lands, the Indian
resistancemust be met with “the hatchet”. Jefferson continued,
“And…ifever we are constrained to lift the hatchet against any tribe,
” he wrote,”we will never lay it down till that tribe is exterminated,
or is drivenbeyond the Mississippi.” Jefferson, the slave owner,
continued, “inwar, they will kill some of us; we shall destroy all of
them”.

化学家认为,美洲的本地人城里人是上千年前在最终一个冰河时期来到美洲陆上的。考古学家从严寒的北边地区到澳洲的最南面,都找到过她们的脚印。

Putting whiteness under inspection shows how powerful race is, despite
the instability of racial categories. For decades, ‘whiteness’ was an
explicit standard for citizenship. (Blacks could technically be
citizens, but enjoyed none of the legal benefits. Asians born outside
the US were prohibited from becoming citizens until the mid-20th
century.) Eligibility for citizenship – painted as whiteness – has
remained a category since its inscription in the Constitution, but those
eligible for membership in that group have changed. Groups such as
Germans, Irish, Italians and Jews were popularly defined as non-citizens
and non-white when they first arrived, and then became white. What we
see as white today is not the same as it was 100 years ago.

In 1812, Jefferson said that American was obliged to push thebackward
Indians “with the beasts of the forests into the StonyMountains”. One
year later Jefferson continued anti-Indian statements byadding that
America must “pursue [the Indians] to extermination, or drivethem to
new seats beyond our reach”.

As the groups of people settled different parts of the land, they
developed their own languages, their own cultures and their own
religions. Each group’s story is important in the history of the
Americas. However, it is perhaps the tribes of the central part of the
United States that are most recognized. They will be our story today.

Thomas Nast’s cartoons are notorious in this regard. His caricatures of
Irishmen and Blacks are particularly shocking because they are a type we
no longer see today. Working-class Irishmen are represented as
chimpanzees in crumpled top hats and curled-up shoes. Their faces have a
large dome-shaped upper lip surrounded by bushy sideburns: 

1807年,托马斯杰斐逊提醒他的战火部门,说道,假设印第安人抵御西班牙人去窃取他们的土地,那么,印第安人的大势所趋会用“短柄斧头”来抗击,Jefferson继续道,“假诺大家节制自个儿去举斧迎向这几个群体,那么在这个群众体育消亡从前大家将不会坦然地躺下,或然被驱赶出俄亥俄河以外”,杰斐逊,那几个奴隶主,继续道:“在大战中,他们会杀死大家中的有个别人,但大家会杀死他们一切!”

位居在不一样地域的本地人城市居民,创制了和煦特其他语言、文化和宗派。每一个原住民部落的传说,都是美洲历史的根本组成都部队分,然而最棒后人认同的,依然那几个在前几日的United States中央定居的原城里人部落。

At times, Nast partnered the Irishman with an equally offensive image of
a Black American, with big ‘Sambo’-style lips, perhaps a large rump and
clunky bare feet. Today, few Americans have an image in their minds of
what an Irish American should look like. Unless, perhaps, they meet a
man named O’Connor with red hair, Americans today rarely think to
themselves: ‘Of course! He looks Irish.’

在1812年,杰弗逊说荷兰人被迫赶退印第安人,“将原始林野兽赶入乱石山”一年后,Jefferson继续他的反印第安人言论,洋人一定要“追求灭亡印第安人可能将他们驱赶到我们不去的地点”

VOICE TWO:

Americans can’t see German, Irish or French, but they could. Not all
white people look the same

三、亚伯拉罕 Lincoln 亚伯拉罕·Lincoln:每十分钟屠杀一名印第安人的U.S.A.管辖

In eighteen-oh-four, Merriwether Lewis and William Clark led a group of
explorers to the Pacific Ocean. They were the first educated Americans
to see some of the native tribes of the Great Plains. And they were the
first white people these Native American people had ever seen.

But Nast was not only sketching nasty caricatures of Irishmen; he was
doing so in a way that would appear believable to his audience. In a
similar example of invisible ethnicity, 15 per cent of Americans in
2014 reported German
heritage. This ethnic group is widespread and numerous. So let me pose a
simple question: what do German Americans look like? One in seven
Americans are German American; how many of the German Americans you meet
have you identified that way? Even more so than later immigrant groups
such as Italian, Irish or Jewish, German is invisible.

In 1862, President Abraham Lincoln ordered the ????ution, byhanging, of
38 Dakota Sioux prisoners in Mankato, Minnesota. Most of those????uted
were holy men or political leaders of their camps. None of them
wereresponsible for committing the crimes they were accused of. Coined
as theLargest Mass ????ution in U.S. History. (Brown, Dee. BURY MY HEART
AT WOUNDEDKNEE. New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 1970. pp. 59-61)

1804年,刘易斯和Clark指引的探险队到了北冰洋。他们是见到大平原地区原城市居民部落的率先批受过教育的西班牙人,也是本地人第贰次看见的白种人。

Americans can’t see German, Irish or French, but they could. It’s not
the case that all white people look the same. My parents are both of
predominantly Irish heritage. One summer, my family was travelling and
had a layover in Ireland long enough for us to see the city of Dublin
for the first time. We had not left the airport before my seven-year-old
son said what I was already thinking: ‘Everybody here looks like grandma
and grandpa!’ My family, according to my seven-year-old, looked like
people from Ireland.

“It is my purpose to utterly exterminate the Sioux. They are to

When the group of explorers neared the eastern side of the great Rocky
Mountains, they met with a tribe of Indians called the Shoshoni.
Merriwether Lewis was the first to see them.

A few years later, I was to meet a French colleague at a busy Paris
train station at rush hour, but neither of us knew what the other one
looked like, and there were hundreds of people. I tried to guess which
of the women entering, exiting, waiting, smoking, texting and milling
about was the person I was to meet, but to no avail. Then I turned, and
from a block away, through a crowd of hundreds, a woman waved directly
at me. She had picked me out. I had been vaguely aware, before then,
that no matter how familiar I got with Paris, I stood out on the subway:
I might feel perfectly French riding the train, reading the
advertisements in French and understanding the conductor, but when I got
home and looked in the mirror, I knew my face was different from the
diverse visages I saw in public.

be treated as maniacs or wild beasts”

Let us imagine we are with Merriwether Lewis near the Rocky Mountains
almost two hundred years ago. Across a small hill, a group of sixty
Shoshoni men are riding toward us.

Later I asked my colleague, and she said she knew I wasn’t French. How
so? I asked. She scrutinised me. ‘La mâchoire.’ It was your jaw, she
said, with a satisfied smile. Until that day, I never knew there was
such a thing as an Irish chin, but I had one. And no doubt, if Nast ever
met my earliest American ancestors on the street, he’d know they looked
Irish too. We don’t see Irish anymore, we don’t recognise it, we no
longer caricature it. But we could.

《into the west》:

Lewis和Clark等人达到落基湖南面包车型大巴时候,大致六10个肖肖尼原住民市民正骑马向她们走来。他们活跃地记载了马上的现象。

The racial category of Asian is just as unstable and entangled with
political power as whiteness is. The US census started counting
‘Chinese’ back in 1870 (with no other category for people from the
continent of Asia). Around the same time, the census started counting a
similarly excluded group, American Indians, which the Constitution had
designated as ripe for expropriation. Tellingly, Indian racial
categories were unstable from the start: after not being counted at all,
Indians were then included but tallied in the ‘white’ column – except in
areas where there were large numbers of Indians, where they became their
own category.

None of the Indians tried were given any semblance of adefense.Their
trials lasted approximately 10 minutes each. All adult males were found
guilty of murder andsentenced to death with the only evidence against
them being they had been present during a”war”which they themselves had
declared against the government.

VOICE ONE:

For Asians, as Paul Schor points out in his fascinating
history Counting
Americans
 (2017),
the US government counted Chinese and Japanese but still left the rest
of Asia blank, adding ‘Filipino, Hindu, and Korean’ in the 20th century.
For something so clearly created by people, lists of racial groups are
never comprehensive and typically ill-defined. Looking across the
Eurasian continent, the US government today is still vague about where
white ends and Asian begins. People in the US who were born east of
Greece and west of Thailand are often unsure which boxes to check in the
US census every 10 years. Like storm-borne waves or wind-blown sand
dunes, race is a daunting obstacle that shifts and changes.

1862年,林肯总统命令绞死了三二十个明尼苏克拉科夫卡托地带的达可它人苏语部落的36个囚。那几个被绞死的人大部分都以她们营地的神职职员和政治总领。他们个中没有阶下囚过他们所被指控的罪名,那铸造了U.S.野史上最大局面的处决.

The first thing we see is that these men are ready for war. Each is
armed with a bow and arrows. Some carry long poles with a sharp knife on
the end.

During the Second World War, China was a US ally, while Japan was an
enemy. The US military decided it necessary to identify racial
differences between the Chinese and the Japanese. In a series of cartoon
illustrations, they tried to educate American soldiers about what to
look for – what to see – in order to distinguish a Japanese solider
who might be trying to blend in among a Chinese population.

“此战的对象是干净灭绝苏部落。他们将被象野兽同样看待。”(Lincoln对将在出征剿杀印第安人的U.S.A.海军政大高校约翰Pope交待他的战役对象卡塔尔国

咱俩的第黄金年代影响是,那一个人早就办好了作战的预备。他们都佩有十字弩,还某一个人拿着上面插着尖刀的杆子。

Today, the ‘How to Spot a Jap’ leaflets are an offensive novelty – used
either to illustrate the history of racist stereotyping or sold on
postcards as ironic curiosities. But they can also be examined in
another way. In The Civilizing Process (1978), the sociological
theorist Norbert Elias studied books on manners from the European
Renaissance to understand the process of the creation of what he
called habitus. Manners that we see as utterly natural and inevitable
today, like not blowing one’s nose at the table, or eating off the
serving spoon, or belching or farting in public, are, in fact, socially
constructed and learned behaviours.

被Lincoln下令屠杀的39名印第安人,未有三个通过法院评论程序,每十分钟判四个,比希特勒越来越灵活。极度令人发指的是,该群众体育的兼具成年人都被定了死罪,唯少年老成的证据是他们反驳政党,况兼战火产生时,他们插足。

They are riding very fast. Some horses seem to be without riders. But a
closer look shows that the men are hanging off the sides, or under the
horse’s neck. They are using the horses’ bodies as protection.

At the historical moment at which they were introduced, books of manners
were required to teach what is today utterly obvious to adults. They
make for incredible reading. In his chapter ‘On Blowing One’s Nose’, for
instance, Elias quotes a ‘precept for gentlemen’ that matter-of-factly
explains: ‘When you blow your nose or cough, turn round so that nothing
falls on the table.’ ‘Do not blow your nose with the same hand that you
use to hold the meat.’ ‘It is unseemly to blow your nose into the
tablecloth.’ Some of the recommendations are as poetic as they are
graphic: ‘Nor is it seemly, after wiping your nose, to spread out your
handkerchief and peer into it as if pearls and rubies might have fallen
out of your head.’ It appears that actions that seem completely natural
had to be taught explicitly.

四、西奥dore Roosevelt 西奥多·罗斯福:独有死掉的印第安人才是好的

他俩骑得急速,某个马背上看似并未人,细心看才会发觉,骑手都贴在马肚子上,或是挂在马脖子下边,用马的肉体做有限帮衬。

Genetic inheritance isn’t what matters. What we literally see is
shaped by politics

The fourth face you see on that “Stony Mountain” isAmerica‘s first
twentieth century president, alleged American hero, and Nobelpeace prize
recipient, Theodore Roosevelt. This Indian fighter firmly graspedthe
notion of Manifest Destiny saying that America‘s extermination of
theIndians and thefts our their lands “was ultimately beneficial as it
wasinevitable”. Roosevelt once said, “I don‘t go so far as to think
thatthe only good Indians are dead Indians, but I believe nine out of
ten are, andI shouldn‘t like to inquire too closely into the case of the
tenth”.

The horses are painted with many different designs that use blue, black,
red or other colors. Later we learn that each design has a special
meaning for the man who owns the horse. Each one tells a story.

The ‘How to Spot a Jap’ flyers were printed to serve much the same
function as the manners books that Elias studied. They tried to create
and implant a racial habitus that distinguished the Japanese from the
Chinese. That Second World War poster looks offensive today – crude,
reductionist, insulting – and it is. We think that recognising such
ridiculousness makes us less racist than the people who made it. It
doesn’t. It merely means that we have different racial categories than
in 1942.

在乱石山上你看来的第四张脸庞是美利坚同盟军20世纪的第风流浪漫任总理,所谓的美利哥敢于和诺Bell和平奖得主,西奥多·罗斯福.
印第安勇士已经牢牢地通晓了她们时局的定价权:匈牙利人对印第安人选用国破山河何况偷走了印第安人的土地。罗斯福说:“
那是不可幸免而且最终有利的,笔者不想走得太远去说唯有死掉的印第安人才是好的,不过自身言听计从11个好印第安人有9个是死了的,何况小编也不乐意去留心查询第12个过逝的案情。

那一个马的随身画着云蒸霞蔚的图腾,后来我们才明白,每一种图案有例外的情致,对马的主人有新鲜的意义。

Chinese and Japanese people look no more ‘similar’ or ‘different’ from
one another than Irish Americans do from French Americans. That doesn’t
mean that there aren’t differences as a matter of statistical
distribution, but only that what we think we know about race has to be
learned, and that what people ‘know’ and ‘see’ as salient and obvious
changes over time. Most Americans cannot distinguish a white American of
Irish origin versus one of French origin walking down the street, yet
they hardly need pamphlets explaining what to look for to tell if
someone is white or Black. If the distinction between Japanese and
Chinese had remained as significant in the US today as it was to US
soldiers during the Second World War, many people would see it as
similarly self-evident.

The apathy displayed by these founding fathers symbolize
thedemoralization related to racial superiority. Scholars point toward
this racialpolarization as evidence of the existence of Eugenics.

For example, the man riding one horse is a leader during battle. Another
has killed an enemy in battle. One of the designs protects the horse and
rider.

On-the-street racial distinctions don’t have to be ‘perfect’. People
often don’t recognise the author Malcolm Gladwell as Black, although he
is; other times whites are mistaken for Blacks. For the purposes of
making or unmaking a racial difference, genetic inheritance isn’t what
matters. What we literally see is shaped by politics. The same two
groups can be visibly different racially or indistinguishable
racially, depending on the political context and power relations by
which they’re categorised.

Eugenics is a new term for an old phenomena which asserts thatIndian
people should be exterminated because they are an inferior race
ofpeople. Jefferson‘s suggestion to pursue the Indians to extermination
fits wellinto the eugenistic vision. In David Stannard‘s study American
Holocaust, hewrites: “had these same words been enunciated by a German
leader in 1939,and directed at European Jews, they would be engraved in
modern memory. Sincethey were uttered by one of America‘s founding
fathers, however…theyconveniently have become lost to most historians
in their insistent celebrationof Jefferson‘s wisdom and humanity.”
Roosevelt feared that American upperclasses were being replaced by the
“unrestricted breeding” ofinferior racial stocks, the “utterly
shiftless”, and the”worthless”

比如说,在这之中一人是战役总指挥,另三个在应战中杀死过仇敌,当中蓬蓬勃勃种图案能保险马匹和骑手的忻州。

Francis Galton was a pioneer in modern statistics. But he was also a
eugenicist. Among other things, Galton became notorious for photos in
the late 19th century that purported to reveal the ‘Jewish type’. At the
time, people believed that Irish, Jewish, Japanese, Chinese or German
denoted races. When Jews were a race, people thought that they could
tell who was Jewish by looking at them. Today, many Jewish people recoil
at the idea that there is a Jewish ‘race’, and find the suggestion that
there is a Jewish ‘look’ inherently racist. At various times, then, the
US Army, Thomas Nast and the father of the statistical method of
regression analysis all believed that there were visually distinct and
observable races that many Americans today would be generally unable to
identify – certainly not with the level of certainty they’d feel with
respect to racial categories such as Caucasian, African American, Latino
or Asian.

那个U.S.国父们所表现出来的淡然表示了与种族非凡感相联系的道德败坏。读书人们也趋于这个种族差距作为优生论存在的证据。

VOICE TWO:

I suspect that a visitor from a planet without race would have a very
difficult time slotting anyone on Earth into the racial categories we
use today. If they were asked to group people visually, there is no
statistical possibility that they’d use the same set of arbitrary boxes,
and even if these categories were described for them in detail, they
would probably not sort actual people in the same way as the modern US
does.

优生论是一个对古老现象的新术语,它预知印第安人应当被一扫而光因为她们是次等中华民族。主见“天禀人权”的Jefferson以为追求印第安人消逝很合乎优生论。在大卫Stannard的U.S.A.大屠杀历史探究中,他写道:“假若那几个相似的词汇被德意志联邦共和国带头大哥在一九四零年明显地阐释并用于欧洲犹太人身上,那么它就能够永久镌刻与人类的现代回想中。可是既然他们是由二个美利坚合众国国父发出的,那么,那个语汇在超越四分之二历国学家持行百里者半九十地庆祝Jefferson的聪明和人道中就很有益地失去了。”罗斯福惊恐United States上流阶层正被“无界定养殖的次等种族群众体育”、那多少个“完全的无能者”、那叁个“没有丝毫价值的人”所替代。

As they come nearer, the Shoshoni group sees that we are not ready for
war. They slow their horses but are still very careful. Merriwether
Lewis holds up a open hand as a sign of peace. The leader of the
Shoshoni does the same. They come closer.

That we think we see race naturally, when in fact it’s socially
constructed, is the third eye through which we see the world. The census
prediction that the US will be majority minority is less a conclusion
than a question: ‘What future will immigrants of colour build in the
US?’ The answer involves not just changes that transpire between one
group and another, but changes to the membership of those groups and
their symbolic meaning. In response to demographic shifts, the very
boundaries of whiteness are likely to shift, as indeed they’ve done
before.

这一个肖肖尼骑手走近后,看见大家不象要上沙场的理之当然,于是放缓了脚步,但照旧不行业心。刘易斯举起二头手,以示和平。肖肖尼人的头头也做出相像的手势,做出回复。双方继续围拢。

In the worst case, a majority non-white US could take its cue from
apartheid-era South Africa

The Shoshoni are dressed in clothes made from animal skin. Most of these
skins are from deer or the American buffalo. The shirts they wear have
many designs, and tell stories like the designs on the horses. One shows
a man has fought in a battle. Another shows a man has been in many raids
to capture horses. Still another shows the man saved the life of a
friend.

In The History of White People (2011), Nell Irvin Painter argues
that the idea of ‘whiteness’ has expanded several times to include more
and more people. First came the Irish and previously ‘suspect’
non-Protestants, who ‘gained’ whiteness in the late 1800s. The next
great expansion of whiteness came with the social upheaval and physical
relocation of both servicemen and migrating industrial workers during
the Second World War. In the war economy, groups including Italians,
Jews and Mexicans became upwardly mobile, and sought to present
themselves in allegiance with Anglo-Saxon beauty ideals (the only Jewish
Miss America was crowned in 1945) – all of which helped to recast them
as ‘white’. The narrative of white inclusivity continued from the
Roosevelt era into the postwar period. Finally, intermarriage eventually
dissolved previous notions of racial boundaries. Few white Americans
could claim a single national race (Swedish, German, French) with any
confidence, and whiteness could no longer sustain the idea of
nation-based races. For Painter, this most recent change closed the book
on any scientific basis for race, and helped to make the US a country
where people are much more mixed, across old racial boundaries, than
ever before.

肖肖尼人穿着用兽皮做的行头,多数是鹿皮或奶牛皮。他们的马夹有差异的图腾,也许有两样的意味,能够来得某一个人与会过大战、数次参预捕获马匹的偷袭行动,或是救过朋友的生命。

Perhaps this mixing means that the US is finally warming to multiracial
identity. But if that is indeed happening, it’s not because of
demographics, but because of the tireless efforts of activists who
continue to fight racism and racial segregation. Movements for racial
justice succeed not simply because of demographic shifts but because
racial privileges cannot justify themselves in the face of an organised
alternative. Many countries have been minority white yet held on to
whiteness; to the extent that whiteness meant citizenship, these were
states that were ruled by a minority and oversaw the hyper-exploitation
of a much larger part of the country. In the worst case, a majority
non-white US could take its cue from apartheid-era South Africa, or
Brazil, or Guatemala, where a small light-skinned group has enjoyed
privileges at the expense of many more who are excluded.

VOICE ONE:

The path to justice therefore involves attacking the prerogative to
categorise people in order to justify their exploitation or
colonisation. That means acknowledging and challenging the basis of
racial categories. It’s not about a token embrace of multicultural
colour: it’s about power, and power is far too wily for us to expect it
to stand still and be overtaken by demographic change. We need to
confront the force of racial privilege no matter who inhabits the
privileged caste at any given moment. It’s no good imagining that innate
human diversity will render the system powerless.

Captain Lewis smiles at these men. He again makes a hand sign that means
peace. The signs are now returned. Lewis and the Shoshoni chief cannot
speak each other’s language. They can communicate using hand signs.

The US shift towards majority non-whiteness is not destiny, but it is an
opportunity. Painter notes that when external conditions change, it
becomes possible to imagine different racial hierarchies. The
geographical and social remixing of the Second World War cooked down the
diverse European identities in the US into a single racial category of
‘white’. Likewise, Asian immigrants occupied one role when Asian
immigration was largely working class, West Coast, limited in numbers,
and male, as it was at the end of the 19th century. But the racial
constraints on Asian Americans shifted when immigration law came to
favour professionals, and brought middle- and working-class people,
women and men, in larger numbers than before to more US cities.

Lewis冲那一个人笑笑,再度做出和平的手势,肖肖尼人也做出相近的手势。Lewis和肖肖尼头领语言不通,可是能够通过手势进行沟通。

Using shifting social situations to upend racial hierarchies is not just
about challenging racism, but race itself. This doesn’t mean the
disingenuous denial of race when racism still very much exists, but a
collective challenge to its right to determine our lives. The Black
Lives Matter movement seeks to take away the police’s prerogative to use
violence against African Americans with no legal sanctions; success
would undermine an important means of maintaining racial segregation and
inequality. What would it mean, once and for all, to bury the shameful,
misplaced pride some white people have for the South’s role in the Civil
War, and acknowledge instead the irredeemable mistakes of their
forefathers? What would it mean to frankly acknowledge each nation’s
racial past, and think about what reparations would set us on a path to
greater prosperity? Race is neither inevitable nor something we can wish
away. Instead, we must take advantage of the instability in what we
perceive, and redistribute the power that perpetuates race.

VOICE TWO:

Race never stays still. As the sociologist Richard Alba pointed out
in The Washington Post last month, the prediction that the US will be
majority non-white by 2044 relies on a definition of race that is
static, and doesn’t acknowledge the surprising reality that people’s
races change. Nearly 10
millionwww.365sb.comU.S.A.最特异的二人总理竟比希特勒更凶横。 people
listed their racial identification differently on the 2010 census than
they had in 2000. Alba criticises the census for ‘binary thinking’ which
counts anyone with Hispanic heritage as Hispanic, and through a quirk in
the census questions, effectively ignores any other racial identity that
they could claim. ‘[A] majority-minority society should be seen as a
hypothesis, not a foreordained result,’ Alba wrote, of the 2044 claim.
This is important, because when it comes to fighting racism, we can’t
rely on demographic shifts to do the work for us. Instead, if we
recognise that race looks solid but is shifting, we can find additional
ways to destabilise the structures of racial inequality.

One young Shoshoni man comes near. He drops to the ground from his
horse. He is tall and looks strong. His hair is black in color and long.
He wears one long bird feather in the back of his hair. Some of his hair
is held in place by animal fur.

Getting rid of racism requires clarity about the nature of the enemy.
The way to defeat white supremacy is to destroy it. The US will truly be
‘majority non-white’ only when white is no longer the privileged
citizenship category, when white is no more meaningful than the archaic
Octoroon or Irish. This is not to discount the anxiety about cultural
loss conjured by talk of an imagined colourblind future, but to
recognise the inextricability of racial identities and power inequality.
With work, perhaps the next expansion of whiteness will be into
oblivion.

八个年轻的肖肖尼人解放下马,他身形高大健壮,留着长长的黑发,头发用兽皮绑着,头发后边还会有黄金年代根十分长的羽毛。

Gregory Smithsimon is associate professor of sociology at Brooklyn
College at the City University of New York, and the CUNY Graduate
Center.

His arms have been painted with long lines. We learn that each line
represents a battle. There are many lines. But we leave the Shoshoni
without him adding another one.

他的手臂上划着比超多少长度线,每条线意味着着一场战役。可是这一次跟咱们的直面,双方并从未接触。

VOICE ONE:

The Shoshoni were only one of many tribes of native people who lived in
the Great Plains area. The life, culture and society of these tribes
developed because of the land that was their home.

(大家在前二个钟头的建国史话中讲到了Lewis和Clark的探险队第三回遭受原住民部落–肖肖尼人的场所。)其实,肖肖尼人只是大平原上多多原都市人部落中的三个。那些群众体育的生活、文化和社会形态都含有大平原的特色。

The Great Plains today is still huge. Even in a car, traveling at one
hundred kilometers an hour, it can take two long days of driving to
cross the Great Plains. The plains reach from several hundred kilometers
north in Canada across the middle of the continent to Mexico in the
south. In the East, the Great Plains begin near the Mississippi River
and go west to the huge Rocky Mountains. It is the center of the United
States.

直到今天,大平原依然广大,尽管是坐在时速100英里的车的里面,要穿过大平原也要全方位两日的光阴。大平原北起加拿大,南抵Mexicanos,东靠新罕布什尔河,西至落基山脉,是美利坚合众国的主干地段。

www.365sb.comU.S.A.最特异的二人总理竟比希特勒更凶横。There are big rivers here, deserts and mountains. Other areas are so
flat that a person can see for hundreds of kilometers. Millions of
kilometers of this land were once covered by a thick ocean of grass.

大平原上有河流、沙漠、山脉,别的的地点则是广阔的绿茵。

VOICE TWO:

The grass provided food for an animal that made possible the culture of
the Indians of the Great Plains. The grass fed the bison, the American
buffalo. The buffalo was the center of native Indian culture in the
Great Plains.

草地养肥了水牛,水牛是大平原土著印第安人文化的中坚要素。

The huge animal provided meat for the Indians. But it was much more than
just food. It was an important part of the religion of most of the
native people in the Great Plains.

水牛不止为印第安人提供了食物,也是大平原地区多数印第安人事教育派的最首要片段。

The Lakota tribe is one of the people of the Great Plains. The Lakota
are sometimes called the Sioux. They believed that everything necessary
to life was within the buffalo. Another Plains tribe, the Blackfeet,
called the animal “My home and my protection.”

苏人印第安部落就相信,凡是生活必得品,都能从水牛的随身找到。其它几个印第安人群众体育把白牛称做“笔者的家和衣食父母。”

VOICE ONE:

The back of the huge buffalo provided thick skin that was used to make
homes for the Plains Indians. Other parts were made into clothing. Still
other parts became warm blankets. Buffalo bones were made into tools.
Nothing of the animal was wasted.

牛背上厚厚的皮能够用来做帐蓬,其余部分的皮能够做服装和毯子,牛骨头能够做工具,水牛身上的别样地点都不会被浪费掉。

No one knows how many buffalo were in North America when Merriwether
Lewis first met the Shoshoni. But experts say it was probably between
sixty million to seventy-five million.

尚无人领悟,Lewis碰着肖肖尼人的时候,北美新大陆上到底有稍稍头红牛,行家揣摸恐怕有五千万到四千两百万头左右。

VOICE TWO:

Another animal also helped make possible the Indian cultures of the
Great Plains. Native Americans first called these animals mystery dogs,
or big dogs. They had no word for this animal in their language. We know
it as the horse.

此外大器晚成种动物也对大平原印第安部落的知识起到了关键效率。那时的本地人印第安人把这种动物叫做大狗,其实他们说的正是马。

No horses existed in North America before the Spanish arrived in the
fifteen hundreds in what is now the southern part of the United States.
Native peoples hunted, moved and traveled by foot. Traveling long
distances was difficult, so was hunting buffalo.

意大利人十八世纪来到后日的美利坚联邦合众国南方早先,北美新大陆上本来未有马。原都市人印第安人都以徒步狩猎和行进的,千里迢迢十分烦劳,更别说捕猎水牛了。

The horse greatly changed the life of all the people of the Great
Plains. It gave them a method of travel. It provided a way to carry food
and equipment. It made it easier and safer to follow and hunt the
buffalo. The horse made it possible to attack an enemy far away and
return safely. The number of horses owned became the measure of a
tribe’s wealth.

马的现身深透改换了他们的生存,给她们提供了直通和平运动载的惠及,也让追踪和狩猎水牛变得特别简约了。有了马,印第安人就能够对海外的仇人发动攻击,然后安全重返。具有马匹的数码,一度成为衡量部落财富的专门的职业。

VOICE ONE:

Spanish settlers rode horses to the small town of Santa Fe in what is
now the southwestern state of New Mexico. They arrived there in about
the year sixteen-oh-nine.

www.365sb.comU.S.A.最特异的二人总理竟比希特勒更凶横。Reino de España市民差十分少在1609年的时候骑马到了前几天U.S.A.东西部新墨西哥合众国州的小镇圣菲。

It is not known how native peoples in Santa Fe got the first horses in
the country. Perhaps they traded for them. Perhaps they captured them in
an attack. Many tribes soon were trading and capturing horses.

还没人领略,圣菲的原城市居民人城里人是怎么拿到第生龙活虎匹马的,可能他们是用东西换的,只怕是动员攻击抢来的。首要的是,没过多短时间,超级多印第安部落都起首买卖和破获马匹了。

By the seventeen fifties, all the tribes of the Great Plains had horses.
They had become experts at raising, training and riding horses. They
became experts at horse medicine.

www.365sb.comU.S.A.最特异的二人总理竟比希特勒更凶横。到1750时代的时候,大平原上的具备部落都有了马,况兼这么些印第安人成了喂养、练习和骑马的老鸟。

Each Indian of the Great Plains could ride a horse by the age of five.
As an adult, a young man would have a special horse for work. Another
horse would be trained for hunting. And another would be trained for
war. An Indian warrior’s success depended upon how closely he and his
horses worked together.

大平原地区的印第安人,陆周岁学骑马,长大未来,各样年轻人皆有有个别匹马,分别用于工作、狩猎和作战。多个印第安勇士的功成名就在相当的大程度上要决定于他和他的坐驾的精心合营。

www.365sb.comU.S.A.最特异的二人总理竟比希特勒更凶横。VOICE TWO:

George Catlin was an artist who traveled a great deal in the early
American west. He painted many beautiful pictures of American Indians.
Mister Catlin said the Plains Indian was the greatest horse rider the
world has ever known. He said the moment an Indian rider laid a hand on
his horse he became part of the animal.

卡森林是美利坚联邦合众国开始时期美术师,他到过西方的多数地点,画了不菲形容印第安人的文章,据她说,大平原上的印第安人是社会风气上最优越的骑手,印第安人把手放在马身上的马上,就和马融为生龙活虎体了。

VOICE ONE:

The buffalo and horse were extremely important to the Plains Indian.
Because the horse made hunting easier, more time could be spent on
things like art. The Plains Indians began to make designs on their
clothing, and on special blankets their horses wore. Even common objects
were painted with designs.

白牛和马匹对大平原地区的印第安人来讲根本,马的现身简化了狩猎专业,让印第安人能把更加多的日子用于美化生活,他们发轫在衣衫和马用的毯子上规划图案,固然是最常用的物品上也应际而生了图案设计。

VOICE TWO:

The coming of white settlers to the Great Plains was the beginning of
the end of the buffalo and horse culture of the American Indians.
Settlers did not want buffalo destroying their crops. The buffalo were
killed. By the year eighteen eighty-five, the Indians of the Great
Plains were mostly restricted to area of land called reservations.

白种定居者的赶来,标识着美洲印第安母乳牛和马匹知识的利落。定居者不期待白牛破坏他们的庄稼,于是从头宰杀水牛。到了1885年的时候,大平原地区的印第安人多数都曾经被赶来了保留地上居住。

VOICE ONE:

Many of the Great Plains tribes that survive today work hard to keep
their traditional cultures. They produce art, music, and clothing. They
keep alive the memory of these people who added greatly to the history
of America.

重重接续到现在的群落都在主张保留本人的思想文化,他们经过艺术、音乐和服装,让对美洲野史做出过重大进献的融洽祖辈的学识流传下去。

VOICE TWO:

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Paul Thompson. This is
Sarah Long.

VOICE ONE:

And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA
Special English program about the history of the United States.

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